Diabetes Mellitus overview: Type 1 & Type 2

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Diabetes Mellitus overview: Type 1 & Type 2

Published on Aug 13, 2021

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a disease that results from the body’s inability to digest and assimilate glucose leading to elevated levels of glucose in the blood and urine.

Type of diabetes mellitus

There are some types of diabetes with 2 commonly known to people existing across the pool of diabetic patients.

Type 1 diabetes: Also known as juvenile diabetes is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps your body’s cells use glucose for energy. Glucose gotten from food is passed from blood to cell with the aid of insulin. In type 1 diabetes, the body can’t process glucose due to the absence of insulin. Glucose from food that could not advance into the cell remains in the blood. This leaves an excess of glucose in the blood. High glucose levels in the blood can prompt both present moment and long-term health issues.

Symptoms and signs of type 1 diabetes

  • Polydipisa (Increased thirst)
  • Polyuria (Frequent urination)
  • Polyphagia (Excessive eating)
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Fatigue and weakness

Causes of type 1 diabetes

An auto-immune disease which leads to chronic insulin insufficiency and long term dependence on iatrogenic insulin.

Diagnoses of type 1 diabetes

There are series of tests that can be used to diagnose the diseases. Type 1 diabetes sometimes develops quickly and patients are diagnosed accordingly.

Risk factors for type 1 diabetes

Certain variables increase a person's chances of developing the disease.

  • Family History: A member of your family with the disease increases your chances of developing type 1 diabetes.
  • Race: Race can be a risk factor though the lines are becoming blurry these days. Type 1 diabetes is more common with people in the white race than other races.
  • Environmental factors: Scientists have not been able to deduce the cause of type 1 diabetes. However, they think some environmental factors such as some viruses may trigger the condition.

Treatment

If diagnosed with the condition, it becomes clear you will need a regulated dose of insulin as your body (pancreas) can’t produce the required level of insulin for processing glucose. Insulin will be administered through injections as prescribed by a doctor.

 

Type 2 diabetes: Formerly known as adult-onset diabetes, it is a long-lasting disease that holds your body back from using insulin in the manner in which it’s meant to. Type 2 diabetic patients are resistant to insulin. Middle-aged and older people are at risk of getting this type of diabetes. Teenagers and children can also be type 2 diabetic.

Symptoms and signs of type 2 diabetes

The symptoms are not so different from type 1 diabetes. Also, symptoms tend to be so light that it becomes unnoticeable. Symptoms are:

  • Frequent urination
  • Increased thirst
  • Increased hunger
  • Unexpected weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Hazy vision
  • Poor wound healing
  • Numbness in hands or feet

Causes of type 2 diabetes

Insulin made by the beta cells in the pancreas is enough but not utilized well by the needed cells. The pancreas makes more insulin in a bid to push the glucose into the cells but fails in the attempt. A high build-up of glucose is present in the blood. Insulin resistance is in effect. A lot of things can cause insulin resistance:

  • Genes
  • Extra weight
  • Excess glucose from the liver
  • Broken beta cells

Type 2 diabetes risk factors

As established with type 1 diabetes, some variables increase the chances of getting down with type 2 diabetes. Variables such as

  • Age–45 years and above
  • Family history ––If a member of your family has it
  • Race ––Africans are more susceptible to the disease
  • Prediabetes ––Condition with high blood sugar but not high enough to be type 2
  • Heart and blood vessel disease
  • Low cholesterol
  • Obesity
  • Depression
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

 Type 2 diabetes diagnosis

 One or more tests may be needed in some cases, but having many symptoms may require one test.

Type 2 diabetic complication

Excess sugar in the blood can cause severe damage to the body, internally and externally.

  • Heart: Risk of getting cardiovascular disease or even a stroke, chest pain.
  • Kidney: Can be damaged to the point of failure where replacement or dialysis is needed.
  • Eyes: May lead to partial or total blindness.
  • Skin: Wounds take longer in healing. Can also lead to broken and irritable skin.
  • Sex: Can damper your sexual capability and ability to procreate.
  • Brain: Brain damages may lead to a high risk of Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Pregnancy: Type 2 diabetic women are likely to have miscarriage, stillbirth, or a baby defect.

The best way to avoid these complications is to prevent them, and in the case, you can’t prevent them, proper management becomes the best alternative.

Treatment and management of type 2 diabetes

Management of type 2 diabetes would require a combination of medication and a change of lifestyle.

Medication:

Insulin therapy.

Oral hypoglycemics

Treating of superimposed infections.

Lifestyle modification:

Exercise: Proper exercise every day is needed.

Weight loss: Reducing weight is detrimental to proper management. It might seem daunting but cutting down and limiting intake on certain food might help. Gradually, exercise should be introduced to aid in weight loss. Dieting plays a major role here. Reaching out to a dietician will be of immense help.

Healthy eating: Eating more vegetables and fruits, fibers, and relaxing high calories or processed carbs comes highly recommended. In some cases, certain fruits will be advised to be avoided.

Constant or regulated monitoring of blood sugar levels will give you a progress report and help in considering other measures for proper management.

If you are a diabetic patient, you can consult with our doctor for proper management and treatment of diabetes. Call or send a WhatsApp message to, 08081111121 to book a consultation. Within the environs of Abuja, our doctor can visit you for a home consultation.

Know your sugar level from a fasting blood glucose test.

Reference

An overview of diabetes types and treatments

Type 2 Diabetes