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Yellow Fever - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention

Yellow Fever - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention

Yellow Fever - Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention

Published on Feb 10, 2020

YELLOW FEVER


Yellow fever is a disease in humans cause by the yellow fever virus. Yellow fever happens in tropical areas of Africa and Central and South America. Infections have escalated in recent years as human beings are in larger contact with infected mosquitoes.

Deforestation

Urbanization

Population movements

Climate change

Great epidemics occur when persons infected with the virus introduce it into highly populated areas with high mosquito density and where most people have small or no immunity from vaccination or prior infection. The first outbreak of yellow fever in Nigeria was reported in Lagos in 1864, with other regular outbreaks reported until 1996. Nigeria has been responding to successive outbreaks. Yellow fever is an epidemic prone infection for immediate notification on the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) platform in Nigeria.

The ‘yellow’ in the name refers to the skin color that happens when the infection involves the liver.


How Yellow Fever is Spread?


In rainforest areas of Africa and Central and South America yellow fever is primarily transmitted between non-human primates and various species of mosquitoes of the genus Haemagogus. Occasional human infection occurs in persons who are working or living in these areas.

Great numbers of cases (epidemics) can also occur in urban areas when a human with yellow fever infects the local Aedes mosquitoes (mainly Aedes aegypti) ensuing in transmission from human to human via infected mosquitoes.


Signs and Symptoms


A first phase of signs is characterized by flu-like signs including:

Yellowing of the eyes,

Fever

Muscle pain

Headaches

Indicating Jaundice

Shivers

Nausea and Vomiting

Loss of Appetite.

Most people improve between 3 to 4 days but 15% of people then enter into a second more toxic segment with liver and kidney failure. Of these extreme cases around 50% are fatal. Symptoms in the second segment might include:

Return of very high Fevers

Bleeding problems

Severe Headache

Abdominal and Back Pain

Frequent Nausea and Vomiting

Drowsiness (too much sleepiness) and Weakness

Yellow Skin or Eyes (Jaundice)

Itching


Diagnosis


Yellow fever can be examined with a blood test, it is clinically hard to distinguish yellow fever from many other infectious diseases, and often impossible when the disease is mild or asymptomatic. The diagnosis of yellow fever is done by detection of the virus or of its genetic component in serum or tissue, or by serological testing for the detection of antibodies. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing in blood and urine can most times detect the virus in early stages of the condition. In later stages, examination to identify antibodies is needed.


Incubation period


(time from becoming infected and developing symptoms)

Between 3 to 6 days.


Infectious period


(time limit during which an infected person can infect others)

Yellow fever can't be transmitted from person to person.


Treatment


There is no precise treatment for yellow fever. Supportive therapy to treat dehydration and symptomatic relief of pain may be required.


Prevention


Exclusion of persons with yellow fever from childcare, preschool, school or work is not required but people should avoid being bitten by mosquitoes while they are sick.

Vaccination is the single most vital measure for preventing yellow fever. Vaccination is encouraged for all travelers to places where yellow fever transmission occurs.

Immunization against yellow fever should be provided by an authorized yellow fever vaccination health center

A number of countries have precise obligatory vaccination requirements for travelers entering that country.

Personal safety and the environmental management of mosquitoes are very important in preventing infection in areas where the virus is present.


DisclaimerThe information provided herein is for patient general knowledge only and should not be used during any medical emergency, for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. Duplication for personal and commercial use must be authorized in writing by Surjen.com