CYTOMEGALO VIRUS (IGM) ANTIBODY TEST
You will provide
Blood Sample and Saliva
This test is for both
No specified preparation needed
Cytomegalo Virus IgG and IgM Antibody Test
Why Get Tested for IgG & IgM?
To diagnose a present, previous or reactivated cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or if it is necessary to know if you ever had a CMV infection, such as prior to receiving an organ transplant
When To Get Tested for IgG & IgM?
When a pregnant lady or an immune-compromised man or woman has flu-like signs and symptoms that indicate a CMV infection; when a new child has congenital abnormalities, unexplained jaundice or anemia, and/or when a child has seizures or developmental difficulties that can also be as a result of CMV; prior to receiving an organ transplant
What kind of sample is required?
The sample required varies upon on the kind of testing. For CMV antibody testing, a blood sample is drawn from a vein from the patients who are symptomatic. Other samples like urine, sputum, amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, duodenal fluid, other body tissues, or saliva in newborns may also be collected depending upon the test requirements.
What is being tested in a sample?
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common virus that usually causes no signs or only mild illness. CMV tests detects antibodies in the blood that the body produces in response to the infection or detects CMV directly.
Most persons are infected as children or as younger adults, but many do not comprehend it due to the fact that CMV normally does not show significant signs and symptoms or solely mild sickness in otherwise healthy people. Individuals with slight sickness may have non-specific symptoms and symptoms, such as sore throat, fever, tiredness, and swollen glands. In otherwise healthy adults, CMV infection may as well cause a flu-like sickness or symptoms similar to mononucleosis (mono), such as severe fatigue, fever, chills, body aches, and / headaches that usually resolve within a few weeks.
CMV is discovered in many body fluids in the course of a severe infection, along with saliva, urine, blood, breast milk, semen, vaginal fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid. CMV naturally spreads from individual to another through close contact with anyone who is diseased or by contact with infected body fluids or objects, such as diapers or toys.
Once you are infected, CMV stays in your body for the rest of your life time without causing symptoms. After your initial "primary" infection resolves, CMV will become dormant or latent, like other members of the herpes family. However, if your immune system is substantially weakened the virus can come to be active once more (reactivate) and result to illness.
CMV can cause health issues in the below given situations:
• A pregnant female who is infected for the first time (primary infection) during pregnancy can pass the disease to her developing baby through the placenta. This can result to serious bodily and developmental problems in the baby. Most newborns (about 90%) who are infected appear healthy at beginning but may later develop listening issues or vision problems, pneumonia, seizures and/or delayed mental development a few months later. A few children might also be stillborn whilst others can also have symptoms at delivery such as jaundice, anemia, an enlarged spleen or liver, and a small head.
• CMV can result to serious illness and death in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS, strong organ or bone marrow transplant recipients, and most cancers patients receiving chemotherapy. These individuals would possibly have the most severe symptoms and their CMV contamination may as well remain active. CMV may reactivate in people who have been earlier exposed.
The infection should have an effect on the:
• Eyes, causing infection of the retina, which can lead to blindness
• Digestive tract, inflicting bloody diarrhea and stomach pain
• Lungs, causing pneumonia with a non-productive cough and shortness of breath
• Brain, causing encephalitis
• Spleen and liver
• Organ or bone marrow transplants, causing some degree of rejection
Active CMV may in addition depress the immune system, allowing other secondary infections such as fungal infections, to occur.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQ’s)
How is it used?
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) testing is used to diagnose an active, relapsed or past CMV infection in cases, such as:
• Some pregnant female or immune-compromised people with symptoms and symptoms
• People who can also obtain an organ or bone marrow transplant
• Newborns with certain birth (congenital) abnormalities
A few special approaches of testing can also be used depending on the purpose for testing:
Antibody checking out (Serology)
This kind of test detects antibodies in the blood that are produced in response to a CMV infection. It can be used to diagnose a progressive or previous contamination by detecting and measuring two types of CMV antibodies:
• IgM antibodies produced by the body as first response to a CMV infection. It can be detected in the blood within a week or two after the initial exposure. IgM levels (titers) rise up for a short time, then decline and normally fall beneath detectable tiers after a few months. IgM antibodies rise again when dormant CMV is reactivated.
• IgG antibodies are generated several weeks after the initial CMV infection. IgG ranges upward at some stage in the active infection, then stabilize as the CMV infection resolves and the virus becomes inactive. Once exposed to CMV, you will have some measurable quantity of CMV IgG antibody in your blood for the rest of your life, which offers safety from getting another serious contamination (immunity).
Healthcare practitioners examine the absence or presence of IgG and IgM antibodies in the equal sample or the quantity of antibody current (titer) in samples accrued one to three months aside (acute and convalescent samples) to distinguish between active and latent CMV.
Direct detection of CMV
Molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are used to diagnose congenital infections in newborns and may as well be used to observe and/or affirm energetic infections in others. These methods may also be used to ascertain the genetic material (DNA) of CMV (qualitative testing) and/or measure the quantity of viral DNA in a sample (quantitative, referred to as viral load). Molecular strategies are more sensitive than culture and positive and negative effects are available in a brief duration of time.
Immune-compromised individuals with active CMV can also be monitored with the usage of a variety of CMV tests. Often, healthcare practitioners monitor the amount of virus current (viral load) to determine a person's response to antiviral therapy.
When is CMV test is done?
CMV test might be ordered along with examinations for influenza, mononucleosis (mono), and EBV (Epstein-Barr virus), when a pregnant woman or an immune-compromised individual has flu- or mono-like symptoms and symptoms, such as:
• Fatigue, weakness
• Sore throat
• Swollen lymph nodes
• Muscle aches
CMV exams may be ordered at normal intervals after an individual has undergone a transplant or when a healthcare practitioner is monitoring the effectiveness of antiviral therapy.
CMV molecular test might also be carried out for a newborn or toddler who has:
• Yellowish color of the skin and eyes (jaundice)
• Low platelet count
• An enlarged spleen and/or liver
• A small head
• Hearing and vision problems
• Signs of delayed mental development
When a man or woman is a candidate for an organ or bone marrow transplant, CMV antibody testing can also be ordered to decide if the individual has been exposed to CMV in the past.
What does the test result mean?
Care need to be taken when deciphering the outcome of CMV testing. A healthcare practitioner evaluates the outcomes in conjunction with medical findings, which include signs and symptoms. It can every now and then be difficult to distinguish between a latent, active, or reactivated CMV infection. This can be due to numerous reasons that includes:
A healthy individual formerly contaminated with CMV will proceed to harbor the virus. The CMV can reactivate intermittently and small quantities of virus can show up in body fluids but not cause symptoms.
An immune-compromised individual may as well not have a increased antibody response to the CMV infection. The person's IgM and IgG stages might also be decrease than anticipated even though the individual has an active case of CMV.
The virus may not be current in adequate variety in the particular fluid or tissue examined to be able to be detected.
Tests accomplished in the very early levels of an acute contamination could have undetectable ranges of CMV antibodies.
A positive CMV IgG and IgM is when you have signs and symptoms and that you have been exposed to CMV for the first time recently or a previous CMV infection is relapsed. This can be established by measuring IgG stages again one to three months later. A high level of IgG is not as essential as a rising level. If there is a 4-fold growth in IgG between the first and second sample, then you have an active CMV contamination (primary or relapsed).
A positive CMV IgM and negative IgG implies that you may have been infected recently.
Negative or low IgG and/or IgM stages might also indicate that your symptoms are due to an infection other than CMV or possibly that your immune system is not responding properly (not producing an adequate amount of antibody even if CMV is present).
If I have or had CMV infection, How can I spread it to others?
If you have a new or prior infection with CMV, you can spread it to others even if you don't seem to be showing signs or symptoms. If symptoms appear, they can develop between 9 to 60 days after the first infection. However, you should be in close contact with others in order to transmit the virus. It can be spread through body fluids, such as saliva, breast milk, vaginal fluids, semen, urine, and blood.
Is there any way to prevent getting CMV infection?
Currently, there are no vaccines available for CMV. Careful hygiene can assist stop transmission of the virus. But, because CMV is very common, is available in most body fluids, and is transferred through close contact, most people are contaminated early in life. It has been estimated that as many as 70% of children in daycare have been exposed to CMV, and between 8% and 20% of childcare providers contract CMV every year.
The information provided herein is for patient general knowledge only and should not be used during any medical emergency, for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. Duplication for personal and commercial use must be authorized in writing by Surjen.com.
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