LIVER FUNCTION TEST (LFT)
You will provide
This test is for both
No food allowed except water for 8-12 hours before the test.
What is LFT (Liver Function Test)?
Liver function test (LFT) comprises of a series of blood assessments usually carried out to determine the function of the liver. This test evaluates the level of liver enzymes, proteins, and bilirubin in the blood.
Why is LFT (Liver Function Test) done?
The Liver Function Test is Carried out:
As a segment of a regular checkup
To detect any supposed liver disease like viral hepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis or to measure the degree of cirrhosis (scarring of the liver)
To observe a present liver disease and to appraise the efficacy of the remedy being given for the same
To observe the liver function in case you are taking medications, that are regarded to have a injurious effect on the liver
What does LFT (Liver Function Test) Measure?
LFT measures the stage of liver enzymes, proteins, and bilirubin in the blood.
The liver is a wedge-shaped organ positioned in the right upper section of the abdomen. The liver helps in the synthesis of specific proteins, produces bile (an alkaline compound which helps in the breakdown of fat), process the bilirubin (a yellowish substance produced from the breakdown of hemoglobin) and helps in putting off ammonia and other toxins (harmful substances) from the body system.
It performs an essential function in the metabolism of fats, protein, and carbohydrates. It keeps glycogen, vitamins and minerals as well as helps in the metabolism (breakdown) of sure drugs.
Many illnesses have an effect on the wellness of the liver like hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, alcoholic hepatitis, autoimmune hepatitis, cirrhosis, non-alcoholic fatty liverdisease (NAFLD), bile duct obstruction, liver or bile duct cancers and many others.
Liver function can also be affected by means of more than a few factors like alcohol abuse, unprescribed drugs, inactive lifestyle, and obesity. Regular check up of liver function is necessary for early discovery of any liver abnormality.
Liver function testis a set of tests that measure the range of Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP), Total protein, Bilirubin and Gamma Glutamyltransferase (GGT) in blood. Each part has its own role and helps to recognize a precise issue of the liver function.
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) is an enzyme and this test measures the stage of this enzyme in the blood. ALT additionally acknowledged as serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and is usually located in the liver, however in smaller quantities in the kidneys, heart, pancreas and muscles. This enzyme is launched into the bloodstream in case of liver disease or harm causing to high ALT blood levels, a certain indicator of liver injury. However, this test cannot decide the severity of the liver damage.
Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)
This test measures the stage of the enzyme AST in your blood. It is recognized as serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT). AST is located in the liver and is launched in the blood in large quantities in case of any liver injury. AST levels are commonly measured alongside ALT as AST is no longer particular for liver (also determined in the heart, skeletal muscle and different organs). Your medical doctor may suggest an ALT/AST ratio to assist in the diagnosis.
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
This test measures the blood levels of the enzyme ALP which is observed in the liver (one of the primary source), bile ducts, bones, intestine, pancreas and kidney. ALP assists in breaking down proteins in the body. Diseases that typically damage or injure the cells of the liver and bile duct, causing overproduction and discharge of this enzyme into the bloodstream. This results to multiplied blood ALP levels.
Total Serum Protein
This test measures the quantity of protein in the blood, which are two fundamental sorts of proteins: albumin and globulin. The test result mentions separate outcomes for complete protein, albumin, globulin and albumin/globulin ratio (A/G ratio).
The stage of proteins in the blood shows the biosynthetic potential of the liver. Hepatocytes (liver cells) are unable to synthesize this protein in some liver ailments resulting to a fall in protein levels in the blood.
Albumin is synthesized solely in the liver. It helps to transports minerals, enzymes, hormones, bilirubin and some medication in the whole of your body. It also prevents the fluid from leaking out of the blood vessels into the tissues.
Globulin is synthesized in the liver and through the cells of the immune system. It performs an important function in arresting infections and transports many enzymes, hormones, minerals and some drugs in the body.
This test measures the quantity of bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a waste product fashioned by using the breakdown of red blood cells and is processed through the liver.
Bilirubin blood test profile is made up of separate values for direct (conjugated) bilirubin, indirect (unconjugated) bilirubin, and whole bilirubin.
When heme is launched from the hemoglobin, it is transformed to bilirubin. This is known as unconjugated (indirect) bilirubin which is carried to the liver by means of some proteins.
In the liver, bilirubin receives connected (conjugated) to modified sugars (glucuronic acid) and create conjugated (direct) bilirubin.
Both of these types (Bilirubin) can be measured or estimated by using laboratory tests, and a complete bilirubin end result (includes both direct and indirect bilirubin) is also measured.
A damaged liver can’t process bilirubin, resulting to abnormally excessive levels of bilirubin in the blood. Increased unconjugated bilirubin in the blood effects due to its overproduction or unsuitable uptake through the liver. Increased conjugated bilirubin consequences can be seen in illnesses that decrease the charge of secretion of conjugated bilirubin into the bile or the drift of bile into the intestine ensuing in a backward waft of conjugated bilirubin into the blood.
This test takes a look at the measures of the level of the enzyme GGT in your blood which is existing in large quantities in the liver. It is a transport molecule and it assists the liver to metabolize many pills and toxins. GGT is a very sensitive test for detecting any liver ailment specially due to alcohol abuse and is as well one of the first enzymes to rise in patients with bile duct obstruction like tumor or stones.
INTERPRETING LFT (LIVER FUNCTION TEST) RESULTS
Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)
The common ALT levels range from 0-35 U/L.
Lower ALT levels shows a wholesome liver, however, decrease levels can be observed in patients with malnutrition.
A moderate to modest increase in ALT range is viewed in patients with the alcoholic liver disease, cirrhosis, persistent liver disease, bile duct obstruction, liver trauma or any physical injury, or patients taking certain drugs that are injurious to the liver.
An increase in ALT stages is observed in patients with acute hepatitis like viral hepatitis (Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C) or in patients who have taken very excessive doses of some drugs like paracetamol.
Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST)
The common AST test results range from 0-35 U/L.
Lower stages of AST in blood are regarded normal, though very low stages are viewed in instances of alcoholic liver sickness and malnutrition.
High stages of AST is seen in sufferers with alcoholic liver sickness (AST frequently increases much more than ALT), cirrhosis, chronic liver disease, bile duct obstruction, liver trauma, non-alcoholic fatty liver ailment (NAFLD), viral hepatitis (Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C) and in patients taking drug treatments that are dangerous to the liver or taking very high doses of some drug like paracetamol. High levels of AST are also seen in patients with coronary heart attach and muscle harm (however, ALT ranges are regular in these patients). High level of AST with common stages of ALT shows that origin of AST is no longer the liver.
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
The normal level of ALP in blood is 13-100 μ/L
High ranges of ALP are considered in patients with bile duct obstruction, hepatitis, cirrhosis, and in liver cancer.
High ranges of ALP are also considered in developing children and pregnant female and are viewed normal.
Low ranges of ALP are viewed in patients with malnutrition and specific genetic disorders. ALP levels reduce briefly after coronary heart surgical treatment and blood transfusion.
Total Serum Protein
The regular degree of Total protein in blood is 5.5-8.0 g/dL.
Albumin & Globulin
The normal level of Albumin is 3.5-5.5 g/dL, roughly 50-60% and that of Globulin is 2.0-3.5 g/dL, roughly 40-50%. An ordinary A/G ratio of barely over 1.
Albumin: Low stages point out that you can also be suffering from a disorder where the protein isn't synthesized, digested or absorbed properly. Lower stages are viewed in patients with a persistent liver sickness such as cirrhosis, inflammatory liver illnesses like hepatitis, and in hepatocellular necrosis. Higher degrees are seen in liver infections like Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. High degrees may also be viewed if you are having a protein rich weight loss plan or if you are dehydrated.
Globulin: Low levels are considered in patients with malnutrition. High ranges are seen in persistent active hepatitis and alcoholic hepatitis. It is also extended in acute infection, persistent inflammatory diseases.
A/G Ratio: Low A/G ratio is indicative of overproduction of globulin and reduced production of albumin, which happens with liver cirrhosis. High A/G ratio regularly suggests the lowered production of globulins and is observed in some genetic illnesses or leukemia.
The normal level of Total Bilirubin in blood is 0.3-1.0mg/dL.
The normal stage of conjugated bilirubin (direct) 0.1-0.3mg/dL.
The regular degree of unconjugated bilirubin (indirect) is two 0.2-0.7mg/dL.
The lower ranges are typically not a concern.
Unconjugated Bilirubin: Higher stages of unconjugated bilirubin are considered in patients with jaundice, acute hepatocellular damage, cirrhosis, viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver disease, bile duct obstruction, liver failure and in prerequisites involving an uncommon amount of RBC destruction (hemolysis). Increased ranges are generally considered in newborns, commonly 1 to 3 days old. If the bilirubin stages do not return to normal and are escalating rapidly, this can also specify neonatal jaundice.
Higher unconjugated bilirubin degrees compared to conjugated bilirubin is suggestive of transfusion reactions and cirrhosis.
Conjugated bilirubin: Higher degrees of conjugated bilirubin are seen in patients with hepatitis, gallstones or inflammation of the bile duct (duct that incorporates bile from liver to the gut).
The normal stage of GGT in blood is 9-48 U/L.
High levels of GGT are seen in victims with obstructive liver disease, acute and continual viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, fatty liver disease, cholestasis, alcoholic liver disease, liver tumors and in case the affected person is taking drugs like phenobarbitone, phenytoin, paracetamol and antidepressants. The low levels of GGT in the blood signifies the absence of liverillness and prove no alcohol consumption.
There are different prerequisites as well in which high GGT degrees are viewed as coronary heart failure, pancreatitis or diabetes. GGT degrees are measured alongside ALP. If the both enzymes are elevated, it suggests a liver disease. If GGT is normal and ALP is elevated, it suggests an underlying bone disease.
Note: Your medical doctor will interpret your outcomes depending upon your gender, age, medications / treatment or weight loss plan you are taking.
Protein Total, Serum
Gamma Glutamyl Transferase
Disclaimer: The information provided herein is for patient general knowledge only and should not be used during any medical emergency, for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. Duplication for personal and commercial use must be authorized in writing by Surjen.com.
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