PROSTRATE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (PSA) TEST
You will provide
This test is for only
The sample needs to be taken prior to a digital rectal examination or rectal prostatic ultrasonography is carried out and earlier than or a number of days after the prostate biopsy.
What is Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)?
Prostate Specific Antigen or PSA is a protein secreted by the prostate gland which serves as a marker for conditions affecting the prostate gland comprises of prostate cancer, prostatitis (inflammation of the prostate gland), and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). The PSA Test is carried out to measure the sum of PSA levels (both free and bound) in blood.
Why is Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) performed?
The PSA Test is performed:
· To screen for and assist to detect prostate cancer
· To identify and diagnose illnesses of the prostate gland like BPH
· To observe the efficacy of treatment for prostate cancer
What does Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Measure?
The PSA Test measures the sum of PSA degrees (both free and bound) in blood. The prostate gland is a male accessory reproductive organ, the secretion of which plays a role to the formation of the seminal fluid. Most of the PSA produced is secreted in the seminal fluid along with prostatic secretions and solely a small quantity is secreted into the bloodstream. PSA is regarded to be a tumor marker because its degrees in the blood are raised in prostate cancer and BPH, and it is used as a preliminary screening test before more diagnostic procedures.
PSA in blood is known as either complexed PSA (bound to other proteins) or free PSA. The PSA Test generally calculates the complete PSA levels in blood both free and complexed forms. Separate tests for the levels of these two types can be used to distinguish between prostate cancer and BPH.
INTERPRETING PROSTATE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (PSA) RESULTS
The standard value of PSA in blood is below 4.0 ng/ml
PSA level approximately between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/ml is perceived a “grey zone”.
Lower than 4.0ng/ml PSA in blood shows very low chance for prostatecancers or BPH, where as above 10.0 ng/ml shows a very high chance of having prostatecancers or BPH.
Different types of PSA testing, and other tests, are needed for further diagnosis.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQS)
Q. How is this test done?
This test is performed by collecting a blood sample. A syringe with a good needle is used to withdraw blood from a blood vessel in your arm. The healthcare issuer will tie an elastic band round your arm to make the blood vessels swell with blood. This makes it easier to withdraw blood. You may be requested to tighten your closed fist. Once the veins are really visible, the place is cleaned with an antisepticsolution and then the needle is inserted into the blood vessel to take the sample. You will experience a tiny pinprick in the course of the procedure. Blood sample as soon as taken will then be sent to the laboratory.
Q. Is there any risk related with this test?
There is no risk related with the test. However, on the grounds that this test involves a needle prick to withdraw the blood sample, in very uncommon cases, a patient may have bleeding, hematoma formation (blood gathering under the skin), bruising or infection at the place of needle prick.
Q. Is there any preparation needed prior to the PSA test?
Ejaculation (either through intercourse or masturbation) is to be avoided for the whole day (24 hours) to time the sample is collected. Inform the medical doctor of any medicines you may be taking. No other particular preparations are normally needed prior to the PSA Test.
Q. What further test can be recommended by your medical doctor in case the outcome of PSA test is not normal?
Additional test that may as well be recommended in case of abnormal PSA test outcome are: · Digital Rectal Examination (DRE) · Free PSA Test · Urinalysis · Prostate Ultrasound · Prostate Biopsy
Q. What is BPH?
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia or BPH is a condition typified by swelling of the prostate gland. Enlargement due to BPH is often precipitated due to getting old and does not form into cancer. The enlarged prostate places pressure on the urethra and leads to blockage, causing urinary retention, weak or no urine flow, urinary bladder stones, infections or kidney damage.
Q. Can the PSA test identify all kinds of prostate cancer?
Increased PSA level is typically a sign of prostate cancer. However, it cannot affirm the diagnosis of cancer seeing that raised PSA levels can be viewed in different conditions also. In addition, PSA levels are not very well raised in gradual developing forms of prostate cancer and many times prostate cancer can happen without raised PSA levels. PSA is typically accompanied through different examinations like Digital Rectal Examination and biopsy to verify the diagnosis of cancer.
Q. What factors can have an effect on the test results?
The PSA range in the blood can be affected by a variety of things including: · Ejaculation · Direct prostate examinations · Physical activities like cycling, horse-riding, etc. · Chemotherapy · Infections of the prostate gland Prostate Biopsy · Cystoscopy (a situation where an endoscope is inserted via the urethra to observe the urinary bladder) · Urinary catheter · Urinary tract infections
Q. In what other ways are the PSA tests (outcomes) evaluated to assist in diagnosis?
PSA Test outcomes can also be evaluated in the following ways: · PSA Velocity: Estimates rise or fall in PSA levels over time. A sizeable increase shows cancer. Faster the rise in PSA, more aggressive is the cancer. · PSA Doubling Time: Also tracks PSA rise by measuring the time in which PSA ranges double. · PSA Density: Measures PSA levels in blood against volume of the prostate gland detected by ultrasound. The PSA levels should be in accordance with the visible volume of prostate, higher levels shows risk of cancer. · Age-specific PSA: PSA levels rise with age, thus the usual range of PSA is to be stated for the age of the exact individual being tested.
Disclaimer: The information provided herein is for patient general knowledge only and should not be used during any medical emergency, for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. Duplication for personal and commercial use must be authorized in writing by Surjen.com.
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