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What is Syphilis?
Syphilis is a sexual transmitted disease (STD), brought about by the microorganisms (bacteria) Treponema pallidum. Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test is utilized to identify syphilis. It is likewise used to quantify antibodies present in the blood of potential instances of syphilis-effected individuals. This test helps your healthcare provider to confirm the disease and start your treatment immediately. This procedure limits the danger of inconveniences and the spread of the infection.
For what reason is Syphilis test performed?
To screen for syphilis in individuals having indications of sexually transmitted diseases
To examine pregnant ladies for syphilis
To observe the treatment of syphilis
The treatment begins with anti-infection agents. With this, the degree of syphilis antibodies fall and can be checked with another RPR test. Unaltered or rising levels can mean a persistent infection.
What does Syphilis test Measure?
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD), brought about by the microscopic organisms Treponema pallidum. It is most generally spread by sexual intercourse (through contact with syphilis sore (Chancre)). Syphilis is effectively treatable with anti-infection agents. However, it can cause serious medical issues whenever left untreated and can be possibly lethal. Maternal transfer to unborn kid through an infected mother can cause genuine and conceivably lethal consequences for the infant.
There are many stages of syphilis:
Primary syphilis: Primary stage begins 2-3 weeks after contacting infection. It normally shows up as one or more unproblematic chancres on the genitals. Since it does not come with pain, it might go unnoticed, particularly on the off chance that it is in the rectum or on the cervix. Generally, it vanishes within 4-6 weeks even with no treatment.
Secondary syphilis: Primary syphilis can advance to secondary syphilis if the affected individual is left untreated. The manifestations for the most part develop from 8 weeks to 6 months after the chancre initially shows up. It is for the most part seen as non-itchy skin rash (rough, red, and spotted), showing up normally on the palms of the hands and the bottoms of the feet. Other related indications could be fever, weariness, swollen lymph hubs, sore throat, and body pains.
Late or tertiary syphilis: Secondary syphilis can advance to late or tertiary stage in the situation where it is left untreated. Individual may stay with no manifestations (asymptomatic) however keeps on having the disease and can keep going for quite a long time. There are different complexities related with tertiary syphilis which can happen if still left untreated, for example, the microscopic organisms (bacteria) can harm the heart, eyes, cerebrum, central nervous system (Neurosyphilis), bones, joints, or practically some other part of the body. Tertiary syphilis can stay in the system for a considerable length of time, with the last stage prompting psychological maladjustment, visual deficiency, other neurological issues, coronary illness, and death.
In Nigeria, it is advised to visit a doctor whenever you notice any signs for immediate treatment so as to arrest the infection before it goes out of hands.
INTERPRETING SYPHILIS (RPR/VDRL) RESULTS
Negative: A negative ("non-reactive") Syphilis test result is perfect with an individual not having syphilis.
The result or outcome of this test can be "positive" or "negative". However, there are instances where the outcomes can be false positive or false negative.
A negative("non-reactive") Syphilis test result indicates that an individual is not having syphilis. In any case, the body doesn't generally deliver antibodies specifically in light of the syphilis microscopic organisms (bacteria), so the test isn't constantly exact. False negatives test result may happen in individuals with early and late-stage syphilis. In view of that, different tests are required to affirm the outcomes.
A false positive result (implies positive outcomes without syphilis) can be experienced in infectious mononucleosis, tuberculosis, infection, intestinal sickness, lupus erythematosus, vaccinia, and viral pneumonia. Pregnancy, immune system diseases, and narcotic addictions may give false positive results (outcomes). Likewise, this test may give false positive outcome in pinta, yaws, bejel, and other treponemal diseases.
Syphilis test is additionally used to observe treatment reaction. Treatment reaction is for the most part shown by a fold (2-tube dilution) decrease in Rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titer (e.g., from 1:32 to 1:8). For accurate interpretation of Syphilis test results, titers ought to be gotten by use of the same testing method and, ideally, at the same testing lab.
Failure of nontreponemal test titers to go down 4-fold within a half year after treatment for primary or secondary syphilis might be characteristic of treatment failure. Patients whose titers remain high ought to be reconsidered for HIV infection.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQS)
Q. Is there any risk related with this test?
There is no risk related with the test. In any case, since this test includes a needle prick to pull out the blood test, in exceptionally uncommon cases, a patient may encounter increase bleeding, hematoma formation (blood gathering under the skin), wounding or infection at the site of needle prick.
Q. What different tests are required for the determination of syphilis?
There are different tests accessible that are required for the determination of syphilis, for example:Immune response tests (serology):Antibody tests are most ordinarily utilized and they distinguish antibodies in the blood and cerebrospinal liquid (CSF). Right now, two sorts of tests accessible for syphilis testing, nontreponemal immune response test and treponemal antibody test. Any of these two sorts can be utilized for syphilis screening; however, it must be trailed by a second test that uses an alternate technique to affirm a positive outcome and to analyze active syphilis.
Nontreponemal counter acting agent tests—these are classified "nontreponemal", as they recognize antibodies that are not explicitly focused against the syphilis microorganisms or bacteria Treponema pallidum. Other than syphilis, these antibodies can likewise be generated in a few different conditions (false positive outcomes). The tests are exceptionally delicate however are vague in nature. False positive outcomes can be found in IV drug use, pregnancy, Lyme illness, and specific kinds of pneumonia, intestinal sickness, tuberculosis, or certain immune system issue including lupus. A positive screening result must be affirmed with a progressively explicit (treponemal) test. Nontreponemal tests incorporate RPR (Rapid Plasma Reagin) and VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory) test.
Treponemal immune response tests: These blood tests identify antibodies that explicitly target Treponema pallidum. They are profoundly explicit for syphilis.
Q. What do you mean by false negative test results?
False negative test results (outcomes) imply that Syphilis test is negative within the sight of syphilis infection. The body doesn't generally create antibodies explicitly in light of the syphilis microbes, so the test isn't constantly precise. False negatives may happen in individuals with early and late-stage syphilis. Consequently, different tests are required to affirm the outcomes.
Q. What do you mean by false positive results?
False positive implies positive results (outcomes) without syphilis. Syphilis test identifies non-treponemal antibodies. This test is not specific for syphilis, despite the fact that it is profoundly sensitive. A false positive RPR can be experienced in unrelenting mononucleosis, tuberculosis, sickness, jungle fever, lupus erythematosus, vaccinia, and viral pneumonia. Pregnancy, immune system infections, and drug addictions may give false positives. Pinta, yaws, bejel, and other treponemal infections may likewise deliver false positive results (outcomes) with this test.
Q. When is syphilis infectious?
Syphilis is generally infectious during the initial two stages and the early latent stage. It can spread through sexual intercourse, along these lines, it is known as sexually transmitted disease (STD). It can enter the body through the private parts, mouth, or open skin. A pregnant lady infected with syphilis can give it to her child.
Disclaimer: The information provided herein is for patient general knowledge only and should not be used during any medical emergency, for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. Duplication for personal and commercial use must be authorized in writing by Surjen.com.
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